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Principles of teaching and learning

Table of Contents

Chapter One   The Performance Versus Management Perspective of Teaching

     Teaching & telling, feedback, television feedback, recitation

Chapter Two    Structures of Knowledge

     Concepts and associations, learning in early infancy, raw sensory data, generalization and discriminaton, verbal or nonverbal learning, advanced subjects are not necessarily more complex than simple ones.

Chapter Three    Diagnosis of Learning Problems

     levels of diagnosis, structural gaps, fragile structures, hidden assumptions, wrong priorities, assumption of fluency, assumption of right thinking

Chapter Four    Correction of Learning Problems

     branching, coherence, levels of fluency, texture, mental habits, definitional versus operational concept formation

Chapter Five    Structures of Knowledge - Part Two

     structures of accretion and implication, structure building versus brain packing, framework structure, supporting structure, auxilliary structure, overhead,

Chapter Six    Arranging Structures

     transmission of knowledge through the medium of language, building on train analogy, coherence, tradition and a good text, texture broadly defined, intensity of effort, chunk theory, orientation

Chapter Seven    Patterns of Coherence

     presentation in a broad sense, unifying theme, extraneous themes, integration of subjects, superintegration, projects, spiral method, spiral versus straight-through, importance of depth of cut

Chapter Eight    The Project Method

     woodworking, breaking up the project method, project may supplant learning as goal, term papers as projects, interest, efficiency, science labs, learning by doing, you can't learn A by doing B, choosing projects,

Chapter Nine    Types of Learning

     perceptual, motor, conceptual, associations, skills, habits, vast complexes of associations of all sorts, daydreaming, brainstorming, projective techniques, Rosarch ink blot

Chapter Ten    Skills

     motor skills, skill as large number of neural impulses in a precise pattern, cortical lead, learning curves, perception as a skill, three lines of reasoning that perception is a skill, attention, data sieve, need for practice, attention and perception working together, knowledge and perception working together

Chapter Eleven     Some Thoughts On Reasoning

     analyzing syllogisms, brain must "do something", Star Trek example, three lines of reasoning, attention, data sieve, learning, either learning or instinct may be evidence of skill, language decoding, "juggling machine", associations and templates, "poking the spot", speed of the juggling machine, imagining, effort required to imagine or think

Chapter Twelve     Habits

     behaviorism, cortical learning, objectively observable behavior, increasing approximations versus all or nothing, middle level of learning between instinct and cortical, turning water faucet right or left, necessity of habit in daily life, hand washing of four-year-old, divisibility of habits, cortical control of habits, piano playing, habit and skill are essentially the same thing

Chapter Thirteen     Operational Versus Definitional Processes of Concept Formation

     rectangles and circles learned in first grade and in high school, vocabulary words from concrete to abstract, fill-in-the-blank vocabulary cards, learning parts of speech, teaching division with a mix of operational and definitional, learning proceeds from operational at low levels to definitional at high levels, definitional fallacy, operational fallacy

Chapter Fourteen    Response Levels of Learning

     Look-say versus phonics, look-say and ciphering levels, reference level, algorhythmic level, open ciphering

Chapter Fifteen     Prompts

     recognition, recall, synthesis, low level or high level, intelligence versus effort, evaluation using low or high level prompts, diagnostic prompts, Socratic prompts, category prompts, differential prompts

Chapter Sixteen     Testing

     "loaded" subject, complete or sampling tests, open or closed sampling, "gatekeeper, guide, taskmaster" perspective, validity and reliability, gate keeping function versus motivational function

Chapter Seventeen     Everyday Classroom Practice

     common misconceptions, "methods" of teaching, "catch or slide", isolate and concentrate, spread and relate, box of one escape model instead of "teachable moment", progressions

Chapter Eighteen Forms of Defective Thinking,    recipe thinking, simplistic thinking